Base Metal Smelting

What is Base Metal Smelting?

The smelting of a base metal.
Base Metal Smelting is a method in which metals are produced either directly from ores or from recycled or waste products [1]. Metals such as cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, zinc and iron are usually those that undergo this process. Smelting itself is the process wherein heat is used to extract metals from their ores [2]. If the ore is an oxide, it undergoes smelting with the presence of carbon which subsequently alters the ore into a reduced metal [3].  Some common processes for base smelting include :

Pyrometallurgical- the desired metals are separated from the excess or unnecessary materials using heat [4].

èHydrometallurgical- the desired metals are separated from the unnecessary materials through the use of differences in solubility and electrochemical properties [4].